level of course unit
first cycle, Bachelor
Learning outcomes of course unit
The students know:
• The methodological basis for the creation of a safety concept,
• The main sources of danger that influence visitor safety at events,
• The possibility of influencing the safety of visitors by means of risk management, and
• The behavior of people in emergencies.
The students can:
• Analyze event-related sources of danger,
• Apply risk management to events,
• Perform risk assessments and
• Develop preventive and reactive security measures.
prerequisites and co-requisites
• Risk management system
• Risk management process: Definition of protection goals, risk identification, risk analysis, risk assessment, possibilities of risk management
• Risk communication
• Human behavior in an emergency (herd behavior, movement patterns, panic situations)
• Methodical fundamentals and contents Safety concept
• Scenario-based and scenario-independent action planning (emergency planning) incl. associated communication concept
• Capacity of event areas: Calculation of area capacities, calculation of required escape route widths, admission management, circulation and downstream planning, barrier and barricade planning
• Information preparation and presentation for visitors
Event-specific problems, including significant influencing factors, are identified and analyzed by means of numerous case studies and videos, and proposed solutions for future prevention are developed.
The course concludes with a simulation game in which situations with emergency and crisis potential are simulated. By experiencing and working through these scenarios, students develop the necessary decision-making and solution skills to manage emergencies during events.
recommended or required reading
Bardy, M. (2019). Crowd Management. In Veranstaltungssicherheit - Von der Praxis für die Praxis: Band 4: Kommunikation - Rettungstechnik und Sanitätsdienst - Crowdmanagement und Terrorismusvorbeugung (S. 25-61). Wien: Service-GmbH der Wirtschaftskammer Österreich.
Drury, J., & Stott, C. (2013). Crowds in the 21st Century. London: Routledge.
Event Safety Alliance. (2014). The Event Safety Guide. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.
Festag, S. (2014). Umgang mit Risiken. Qualifizierung und Quantifizierung. Wien: Beuth Verlag.
Helbing, D., & Mukerji, P. (25. 06 2012). Crowd disasters as systemic failures: analysis of the Love Parade disaster. Abrufbar von https://epjdatascience.springeropen.com/articles/10.1140/epjds7
Still, K. G. (2013). Introduction to Crowd Science. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
assessment methods and criteria
language of instruction
number of ECTS credits allocated
planned learning activities and teaching methods
integrated course, case studies, discussion, group work, presentations
semester/trimester when the course unit is delivered
name of lecturer(s)
Martin Bardy MA, BEd, BA, MBA
year of study
recommended optional program components
course unit code
type of course unit
mode of delivery